Current Issue Volume 5, Number 2 , April-June 2018

ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Shashit Shetty Bavabeedu, Vinod Babu Mathew, Abdalla N Fahad, Mohammed Saleh H Al Hutaylah,Saad Abdullah O Al Ahmari, Mohammed Saeed A Al Yami

Evaluation of the Antibacterial Effect of Virgin Olive oil on Enterococcus Faecalis: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2018] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:2] [Pages:118] [Pages No:1-4]



Background: Repeated endodontic failures are due to pathogens like Enterococcus faecalis which are resistant to the common intracanal medicaments available. Plant extracts have shown promising results against pathogens in the recent literature. One such extract is virgin olive oil which has shown its efficacy against some pathogens.

Aim: This study aims to determine the role of commonly used virgin olive oil against root canal pathogen E. faecalis, and to compare its efficacy with chlorhexidine (CHX), a popularly used intracanal medicament.

Materials and Methods: Bacterial strains of E. faecalis were tested against virgin olive oil and CHX. 10 agar plates were prepared using brain heart infusion (BHI) agar. The BHI agar dishes were then stored at room temperature for 2 days before use to verify that they had remained sterile. BHI broth was also prepared and stored in 5 ml vials for 2 days. E. faecalis was maintained on BHI broth and cultures of E. faecalis were grown overnight at 37°C in BHI broth for 24 h, and bacterial growth was checked by the presence of turbidity. The BHI broth was inoculated with E. faecalis from a freshly grown culture on an agar plate. The broth culture was incubated at 37°C for 24 h. 100% olive oil and CHX gluconate gel were used as test specimens. Well diffusion method was used to derive the results. The inoculated plates were kept in an incubator at 37°C for 48 h and inhibition zones were measured.

Results: The CHX group showed a consistent zone of inhibition in all the agar plates. The average diameter of the zone of clearance shown by Group 1 (CHX 2%) was 24.2 ± 2.39 mm. The test group of extra virgin olive oil showed no zone of clearance in all the plates tested. This shows a lack of direct antibacterial activity by this group.

Conclusion: In the present study, virgin olive oil did not show any antibacterial activity against E. faecalis which is common root canal pathogens which are responsible for repeated end-odontic failures when compared with medicaments like CHX.

Keywords: Chlorhexidine, Enterococcus faecalis, Virgin olive oil.

How to cite this article: Bavabeedu SS, Mathew VB, Fahad AN, Al Hutaylah MSH, Al Ahmari SAO, Al Yami MSA. Evaluation of the Antibacterial Effect of Virgin Olive oil on Enterococcus Faecalis: An In Vitro Study. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(2):1-4.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Rutuja Sanjay Sancheti, Shubha Joshi, R Sushma, Abhijeet Kore, Shivsagar Tewary, Karuna Pawshae,Priya Vaswani

Assessment of Anteroposterior Arrangement of Maxillary Anterior Teeth inComplete Denture Fabricated by Students

[Year:2018] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:2] [Pages:118] [Pages No:5-8]



Background:
This study was conducted to assess complete denture fabricated by students for the antero-posterior arrangement of maxillary anterior teeth and to evaluate patient satisfaction level regarding esthetics and phonetics.

Materials and methods:
Study was conducted on complete denture of 100 patient (50 male and 50 female) and distance between incisive papilla to incisal edge of maxillary central incisor was investigated using modified divider, further measured by using metal scale. Esthetics and phonetics satisfaction level was recorded by both patient and expert using VAS scale.

Result:
The recorded data was analyzed stastically and found out that overall patients were more satisfied than experts regarding esthetics and phonetics.

Conclusion:
The present study strongly reports that although distance between incisive papilla and central incisor are varied yet patient are satisfied with esthetics and phonetics and thus incisive papilla cannot be alone taken as a guide in teeth arrangement.

Keywords: Arrangement of anterior teeth, Esthetics, Incisive papilla, Incisal edge, Phonetics.

How to cite this article: Sancheti RS, Joshi S, Sushma R, Kore A, Tewary S, Pawshae K, Vaswani P. Assessment of Anteroposterior Arrangement of Maxillary Anterior Teeth in Complete Denture Fabricated by Students. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(2):5-8.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Tabeya Deep Kaur, Amit Bhardwaj, Harpreet Singh Grover, Poonam Arora

Exploration of Association between Chronic Periodontitis and SleepDeprivation and Evaluation of this Interrelationship with StressHormone (Cortisol) Levels: A Clinico-immunological Study

[Year:2018] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:2] [Pages:118] [Pages No:9-15]



Background: Sleep deprivation and stress has become a global phenomenon, and various epidemiologic data indicates that short sleep duration and high level of stress adversely impacts human physical health. Underlying mechanisms involves the modulation of immuneinflammatory mechanisms of the body. These changes in the host might contribute to potentiation of destructive periodontal disease. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the exploration of association between chronic periodontitis and sleep deprivation and to evaluate this Inter- Relationship With Stress Hormone (Cortisol) Levels.

Materials and Methods: Hundred subjects who were diagnosed as chronic periodontitis patients were taken in to the study. Periodontal status of subjects was assessed by pocket probing depth. All the study subjects were administered Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire for the assessment of sleep deprivation and the ones who had score as =5 were further evaluated for their corresponding serum cortisol levels.

Results: Present investigation revealed that in 80% of the chronic periodontitis cases where the PSQI Value was 5 or more than 5 (evaluated as sleep deprived patients) there was a corresponding increase in the serum cortisol levels and the results were statistically significant.

Conclusion: The present study with its results is suggestive of the association of sleep deprivation and stress with the severity of periodontal disease.

Keywords: Chronic periodontitis, Cortisol, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Sleep deprivation, Stress.

How to cite this article: Kaur TD, Bhardwaj A, Grover HS, Arora P. Exploration of Association between Chronic Periodontitis and Sleep Deprivation and Evaluation of this Interrelationship with Stress Hormone (Cortisol) Levels: A Clinico-immunological Study. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Moayed Awad Aldalbhi, Ahmed Obeed Alrouji, P. Sridhar Reddy

Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Patients about EmergencyManagement of Dental Trauma

[Year:2018] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:2] [Pages:118] [Pages No:16-18]



Background: Traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) are widespread in the population and are a serious dental public health problem among children. Dental trauma may cause both functional and esthetic problems, with possible impacts on the patient’s quality of life.

Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of elementary school teachers regarding dental trauma and its management.

Methodology: The targeted group included teachers working in primary (Grade 1-6) and secondary (Grade 7-12). For each question, we were interested in the proportion of teachers giving the correct answer. A sample size of 100 was taken. The questions assessed the knowledge and attitude of teachers toward their student’s dental trauma and its management. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Packages of the Social Sciences version 17.0.

Results: Among 100 teachers, 57% stated that visiting a dentist is necessary in a TDI, 23% preferred physicians, whereas 11% preferred self-medication and according to 9%, there was no need of treatment.

Conclusion: As many teachers have a low level of knowledge regarding dental trauma, there is a need for greater awareness to improve knowledge and attitude of teachers related to the emergency management of TDIs in children by organizing educative and motivational programs.

Keywords: Attitude, Dental trauma, Dental trauma, Knowledge, Traumatic dental injuries.

How to cite this article: Aldalbhi MA, Alrouji AO, Reddy PS. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Patients about Emergency Management of Dental Trauma. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(2):16-18

Source of support: Nil

Conflicts of interest: None


ORIGINAL RESEARCH
K C Ajith Kumar, Praveen Santhakumaran Nair, Presanthila Janam, K Nandakumar

The Effect of Periodontal Debridement on C-reactive Protein inChronic Periodontitis: A Comparative Study

[Year:2018] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:2] [Pages:118] [Pages No:19-24]



Background: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a serum protein synthesized by liver only during an inflammatory condition. The study was carried out in chronic periodontitis patients to quantitatively evaluate the serum level of CRP, before and after periodontal debridement therapy and compare the values with that obtained from patients who practiced meticulous home care alone.

Methods: A total of 40 untreated chronic periodontitis patients were selected and randomly placed into two groups: Group I (Control) and Group II (Study), each comprising of 20 subjects. The study parameters evaluated were oral hygiene status, gin-gival index, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment loss, and serum levels of CRP. From Group I patients, blood samples for estimating CRP levels were collected on the 1st day and only oral hygiene instructions were given such as brushing twice daily by modified bass method and rinsing with 0.2% chlorhexi-dine gluconate mouthwash twice daily after brushing. At the end of 1 month, blood samples for estimating CRP levels were again collected. For Group II patients, blood samples for CRP estimation were collected for determining the baseline value before the initiation of periodontal therapy. Scaling and root planning (SRP) was performed. Furthermore, patients were then instructed to begin meticulous home care, similar to Group I patients. After 1 month from the date of performing SRP, blood sample was again collected for estimating CRP levels.

Results: The baseline CRP levels were similar in both groups (Group I: 2.39 and Group II: 2.64 mg/L). After 1 month post-operative, mean CRP value for Group II was reduced to 0.85 ± 0.66 compared to 2.40 ± 0.96 in Group I. This reduction in CRP value for the Group II, who had undergone periodontal therapy is very highly significant.

Conclusion: Periodontal debridement therapy can be employed as an effective tool in reducing the level of elevated CRP. From this study, it can be confirmed that debridement therapy gives excellent results in reducing the level of elevated systemic inflammatory markers compared to personal plaque control measures.

Keywords: Chronic Periodontitis, C-reactive protein, Periodontal debridement

How to cite this article: Kumar KCA, Nair PS. The Effect of Periodontal Debridement on C-reactive Protein in Chronic Periodontitis: A Comparative Study. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(2):19-24.

Source of support: Nil

Conflicts of interest: None


ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Srinivasa Gowda, Lalit Kumar, H S Indrakumar, Komal Sehgal, Rucha Kashyap, Virender Kumar, Dilip Daniel Quadras

Finite Element Analysis of Compressive Stress Pattern in Implant-toothSupported Fixed Partial Denture: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2018] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:2] [Pages:118] [Pages No:25-30]



Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of connector design on magnitude and distribution pattern of compressive stress in supporting bone of implant-natural tooth supported three-unit fixed partial denture in distal extension situation.

Materials and Methods: Three-unit fixed partial denture geometric models with lower second premolar as a mesial abutment, missing lower first molar and implant as distal abutment at a second molar place in distal extension situations of the mandibular arch were evaluated using two-dimensional finite element analysis. Three geometric models were constructed with mesial and distal rigid connectors, mesial nonrigid connector, and distal nonrigid connector, respectively, using the software ANSYS: Version 10.0 (University Intermediate). The models were analyzed to evaluate compressive stress at five critical zones under static axial loading (200N) after meshing and assigning the material properties.

Results: The maximum compressive stress concentration values at mesial and distal crestal zone of the implant were -83.33 MPa and -93.30 MPa, respectively, in the model 1. The maximum compressive stress concentration values at the mesial and distal crestal zone of the implant were -51.946 MPa and -45.39 MPa, respectively, with 0.1 mm vertical movement of the connector in the model 2. The maximum compressive stress concentration values at the mesial and distal crestal zone of the implant were -1.768 Mpa and -3.903 Mpa, respectively, with 0.1 mm vertical movement of the connector in the model 3.

Conclusion: In the supporting bone around the implant abutment, the maximum compressive stress concentrations were seen in the crestal zones of model 1 with the rigid connector. In the supporting bone around the implant abutment, the minimum compressive stress concentrations were seen in the crestal zones of models with nonrigid connector.

Clinical Significance: When the implant is used as a distal abutment in distal extension case, it is recommended to place the nonrigid connector in the mesial side of distal implant abutment in implant-natural tooth supported fixed partial denture.

Keywords: Geometric model, Nonrigid connector, Rigid connector.

How to cite this article: Gowda S, Kumar L, Indrakumar HS, Sehgal K, Kashyap R, Kumar V, Quadras DD. Finite Element Analysis of Compressive Stress Pattern in Implant-Tooth Supported Fixed Partial Denture: An In Vitro Study. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(2):25-30.

Source of support: Nil

Conflicts of interest: None


ORIGINAL RESEARCH
N Gopa Kumar, J Sreeja, C U Vivek Chand

Comparative Histopathological Evaluation of the Biocompatibility of AH Plus, Epiphany, RoekoSeal: An In Vivo Study in Subcutaneous Tissue of Rats

[Year:2018] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:2] [Pages:118] [Pages No:31-36]



Aims and Objectives: The present study is aimed to evaluate the biocompatibility of two new resin-based root canal sealer materials, i.e., Epiphany sealer and RoekoSeal and to compare their biocompatibility with a commonly used resin based AH plus sealer. After implantation in a subcutaneous tissue of rats and to observe local tissue reaction, at different time periods of 10 days and 90 days.

Materials and Methods: Twenty Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups of 10 each for observation after completion of 10 and 90 days following implantation, respectively. Polyethylene tubes loaded with experimental sealer and empty tube (control) were implanted subcutaneously. The subcutaneous tissues from sacrificed rats were analyzed histologically for inflammatory response and were graded with score 0-4. Results were analyzed statistically with Kruskal-Wallis tests.

Results: In this study, there are significant differences in the severity of local tissue response to AH plus, Epiphany, and Roekseal sealers 10 days group. Epiphany caused severe local tissue response, AH plus and RoekoSeal showed moderate to severe tissue response. After 90 days, the order of toxicity from highest toxic to lowest toxic for this group is Epiphany Sealer > AH Plus > RoekoSeal. The differences between these materials are statistically significant.

Conclusion: The biocompatibility of a material depends on its composition, location, and interaction with local tissues. The biologic response of the material depends on whether those components are toxic, immunogenic, or mutagenic. The dental personal should be aware of the biologic response of the material, its advantages and disadvantages as well as precautions to be taken while using the material for the safety and health of the patient. From the current study, it is concluded that Roekoseal, is relatively a biocompatible sealer as compared to AH Plus and epiphany sealers.

Keywords: Histopathological evaluation, Biocompatibility, AH Plus, Epiphany, Roekoseal, Subcutaneous tissue.

How to cite this article: Kumar NG, Sreeja J, Chand CUV. Comparative Histopathological Evaluation of the Biocompatibility of AH Plus, Epiphany, RoekoSeal: An In Vivo Study in Subcutaneous Tissue of Rats. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(2):31-36.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Srinivasa Tenkasale Siddeshappa, Rohanjeet Ashok Dede, Roshan Prabhakar Dhonge, Mangesh Ganesh Andhare, Afroz Anjum, Rajaprasenjit Maroti Dhuldhwaj

An Overall Assessment of Oral Health Knowledge and Practice on the Periodontal Health of Adults in Beed District of Maharashtra, India

[Year:2018] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:2] [Pages:118] [Pages No:37-41]



Background: Oral health knowledge is considered to be an essential prerequisite for health-related behavior. Oral health care can sometimes be a forgotten part of a healthy lifestyle. Hence, the aim of this study was to find out an association between knowledge of the patient with oral health awareness to maintain good oral and periodontal health.

Materials and Methods: A total of 300 patients who were attending outpatient department were selected. A structured questionnaire which includes socioeconomic status, type of toothbrush, methods of brushing, use of interdental aids, and visits to the dentist was given to the all the participated patients. Then, data were collected from all the patients and were analyzed statistically using ANOVA and Student’s unpaired f-test.

Results: The result of this study showed a lack of oral hygiene awareness and limited knowledge of oral health practice.

Conclusion: There is a need of comprehensive oral health educational programs to implement proper oral hygiene practices, thereby we can improve good oral as well as periodontal health.

Keywords: Dental visit, Oral health awareness, Oral hygiene practice, Periodontal health, Socioeconomic status.

How to cite this article: Siddeshappa ST, Dede RA, Dhonge RP, Andhare MG, Anjum A, Dhuldhwaj RM. An Overall Assessment of Oral Health Knowledge and Practice on the Periodontal Health of Adults in Beed District of Maharashtra, India. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(2):37-41.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Faisal Arshad, H S Dharmesh, V S Bharathi, Arora Abhas Ram, Shamshad Begum

Effect of Two Energy Values of 810-nm Diode LLLT on Reducing Pain Caused byOrthodontic Elastomeric Separators: A Split Mouth Randomized Controlled Clinical Study

[Year:2018] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:2] [Pages:118] [Pages No:42-45]



Objective: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been reported to have a local analgesic effect. Keeping in view the pain-relieving effect of LLLT the objective of this study was to determine the effect of two energy values of 810-nm diode low-level laser irradiation on dental pain induced by forces from separators in orthodontic treatment.

Materials and Methods: Thirty patients were enrolled in this study. Patients were randomly allocated to two groups. Patients were randomly assigned to either the 4-Joule laser energy group or the 16-Joule laser energy group with an allocation ratio of 1:1 using a simple randomization technique. 4-Joule or 16-Joule low-level laser irradiation was applied on one-half of the maxillary and mandibular arches for 5 days. The opposite half of the arches was considered the control in both groups. Laser irradiation was applied for 30 s in the alveolar bone between the second premolars, first molars, and second molars. Laser used in this study was Ga-Al-As laser device with a wavelength of 810 nm. Pain perception was evaluated with a standardized questionnaire that was answered by patients before and after laser irradiation. Data were analyzed by Wilcoxon and Friedman test. P < 0.05 was considered significant.

Results: The highest pain level was reported at day 2 following separator placement and decreased gradually until day 5. The pain intensity was lower in the laser group than in the control group. No statistical significance was found for both low-level laser energy values in comparison to the corresponding control group. At day 2, the pain intensity was lower in the laser group than in the control group and was statistically significant.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that there was no statistically significant difference for both low-level laser energy values in comparison to the corresponding placebo treatments low-level laser irradiation, with the exception of the pain experienced on the highest pain perception day.

Keywords: Low level laser therapy - (LLLT), Visual analog scale - (VAS), Ga-Al-As diode device.

How to cite this article: Arshad F, Dharmesh HS, Bharathi VS, Ram AA, Begum S. Effect of Two Energy Values of 810-nm Diode Low-Level Laser Therapy on Reducing Pain Caused by Orthodontic Elastomeric Separators: A Split Mouth Randomized Controlled Clinical Study. Int J PrevClin DentRes 2018;5(2):42-45.

Source of support: Nil

Conflicts of interest: None


ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Tushar Pathak, Bharat Gupta, Vaibhav Tiwari, Nidhi Tiwari, Saniyah Ashfaque Shaikh, Visalakshi Shivaraman

A Comparative Study to Evaluate the Effectiveness of SubgingivallyDelivered Antimicrobial Bio-absorbable Controlled Release 0.5%Azithromycin Gel and 2 mg Tetracycline Hydrochloride Fibres as anAdjunct to Scaling and Root Planing in the Treatment of Chronic Periodontitis

[Year:2018] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:2] [Pages:118] [Pages No:46-52]



Introduction: Local delivery of antimicrobials in sustained or controlled delivery systems is used to enhance the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy; it might be possible to achieve gingival health without the need for invasive techniques with the use of local drug delivery systems.

Objectives: Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the effectiveness of subgingivally delivered antimicrobial bioabsorbable controlled release 0.5% azithromycin (AZM) gel and 2 mg tetracycline hydrochloride fibers as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) in the treatment of chronic periodontitis.

Methods: A 6-month randomized controlled clinical trial was carried out in 15 patients suffering from chronic periodontitis. A total of 60 sites were divided into experimental sites A and experimental sites B. The experimental sites A were treated with SRP in combination with subgingival application of biodegradable 0.5% AZM gel. The experimental sites B received SRP and subgingival application of 2 mg tetracycline hydro-chloride fibers. Plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and gingival margin position were recorded at baseline, 3 and 6 months.

Results: All the treatments showed significant reductions in PI, GI, PPD, and clinical attachment level (CAL) at 3 and 6 months when compared to baseline values (P < 0.05). At 6 months, experimental Group A showed significantly greater improvement in all clinical parameters than experimental Group B.

Interpretation and Conclusion: The adjunctive use of 0.5% AZM gel showed greater PPD reductions and CAL gains compared to the combination of SRP and tetracycline hydrochloride.

Keywords: Azithromycin, Drug delivery systems, Periodontitis, SRP, Tetracycline hydrochloride.

How to cite this article: Pathak T, Gupta B, Tiwari V, Tiwari N, Shaikh SA, Shivaraman V. A Comparative Study to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Subgingivally Delivered Antimicrobial Bio-absorbable Controlled Release 0.5% Azithromycin Gel and 2 mg Tetracycline Hydrochloride Fibres as an Adjunct to Scaling and Root Planing in the Treatment of Chronic Periodontitis. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(2):46-52

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Ramandeep Kaur, Pradeep Tandon

Let's Find Out the Best Assessment of Sagittal Skeletal Relationships

[Year:2018] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:2] [Pages:118] [Pages No:53-55]



Several cephalometric assessments of angular and linear jaw relationships have been developed to describe and quantify the anteroposterior relationship of the maxilla and mandible. The present study was conducted on pretreatment lateral head cephalograms of 50 patients. The sample was divided into two groups. Group I was control group comprising 25 subjects with normal occlusion and the other groups comprised 25 subjects with Angle’s Class II div.1 malocclusion. In the present study, various angular and linear methods were used for the assessment of sagittal dentoskeletal relationships such as SNA, SNB, ANB, AFB, AXD, JYD, APDI, AF-BF, and App-Bpp. It was found that APDI and App-Bpp were the best angular and linear methods for assessing sagittal skeletal relationship.

Keywords: APDI, App-Bpp, Cephalometrics, Sagittal.

How to cite this article: Kaur R, Tandon P. Let’s Find Out the Best Assessment of Sagittal Skeletal Relationships. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(2):53-55.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Rohan Sohoni, Ajit V Koshy, Amrita Manish Bhatia, Ameera Mulla, Anagha Kochar, Sana Shaikh

The Incidence and Nature of Fingernail Flora after Routine Pre-operative Hand Scrubbing

[Year:2018] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:2] [Pages:118] [Pages No:56-58]



Background: Nail folds and subungual are areas where bacteria can remain even after effective washing. The presence of the pathogenic bacteria will cause contamination through the fingernails. Infected hand of the health-care personnel is the main cause of spread of these infections These can be passed from the hospital employees to the patients resulting in nos-ocomial infections. Gram-positive and some Gram-negative bacteria are found which remain stable.

Aim and Objectives: The study was to investigate the incidence and nature of fingernail flora after routine pre-operative hand scrubbing.

Materials and Methods: Fifteen consecutive patients were studied. After scrubbing with betadine/soap solution for 10 min, the patients’ nails of all digits were trimmed. Gram staining of the isolates was performed. Fungal cultures were done by plating the suspension onto Sabouraud’s agar slants and incubating at 30°C for up to 4 weeks with weekly observations.

Results: Fingernail isolates from the 15 patients varied. Some patients had more than one type of microorganism (i.e. bacterial, mold, and yeast) and others had several different species of the same type. Microscopic observations revealed the presence of fungi: Mucor sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., and yeast Candida.

Conclusions: The study has shown the presence of bacteria in high frequency in and around fingernail. In spite of adequate pre-operative hand scrubbing, the fingernails were heavily contaminated.

Keywords: Contamination, Fingernail flora, Hand hygiene, Health-care personnel, Pre-operative hand scrubbing.

How to cite this article: Sohoni R, Koshy AV, Bhatia AM, Mulla A, Kochar A, Sohoni SS. The Incidence and Nature of Fingernail Flora after Routine Pre-operative Hand Scrubbing. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(2):56-58.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Kritant Bhushan, Rajnish Sahu, Anchal Mudgal

Clinical Comparative Evaluation of Envelope Flap and TriangularFlap in Lower Third Molar Surgery: A Prospective Study

[Year:2018] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:2] [Pages:118] [Pages No:59-65]



Objective: The main objective of the study is to compare the efficacy of envelop flap and triangular flap in lower third molar surgery and to evaluate the effect of flap design on operating time, accessibility and ease of suturing in lower third molar surgery, post-operative complications after lower third molar removal, and periodontal health of the second molar.

Study Design: Twenty individuals with age group 18-35 years, with bilateral impacted lower third molars were the study subjects and divided into two groups - Group (A) - those in which envelop flap was used and Group (B) - those in which triangular flap was used.

Result: The results of our study suggested that flap design has an influence in post-operative complications of third molar surgery. Envelop flaps had a better short-term outcome on post-operative swelling and trismus, while triangular flaps allowed for an early return to pre-operative probing depth around the second molar. Intraoperatively it was also found that envelop flap is easier to perform and suture than the triangular flap.

Conclusion: The decision about which flap to use for third molar surgery in young patients should be according to surgeon’s preference, taking into consideration the patient’s needs and oral hygiene.

Keywords: Triangular flap, Envelope flap, Trismus

How to cite this article: Bhushan K, Sahu R, Mudgal A. Clinical Comparative Evaluation of Envelope Flap and Triangular Flap in Lower Third Molar Surgery: A Prospective Study. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(2):59-65.

Source of support: Nil

Conflicts of interest: None


ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Mainak Kanti Saha, Surbhi Bansal, Vikesh Singh Chahar, Samia Zulfiqar Ali,Gauri Barkalle, Chandani Hora

Assessment of Denture Hygiene Habits among ElderlyPatients Wearing Complete Dentures

[Year:2018] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:2] [Pages:118] [Pages No:66-69]



Introduction: Complete dentures are used for replacing the entire set of lost teeth in the dental arch. Regular oral and denture hygiene procedures play a major role in the maintenance of oral health and the long-term success of removable prost-hodontic treatment.

Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze the hygiene habits of complete denture patients in the local population of Indore.

Materials and Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire involving the complete denture patients, and 459 denture subjects were assessed. Descriptive analysis was performed.

Results: A total of 287 subjects cleaned their denture twice a day. Majority of the subjects used only water and toothbrush to clean their dentures. About 280 subjects do not have any reflex sensation while wearing the denture. Since the complete denture provides extensive support to the patient and withstands the masticatory force very effectively, a vast number of subjects do not take out their denture while eating.

Conclusion: Several educational and motivational camps should be conducted to increase the awareness about denture cleanliness among the older subjects. Dentists should educate that microbial deposition on the tooth surface is harmful and instructs them to clean their dentures regularly.

Keywords: Complete dentures, Denture hygiene habits, Elderly patients.

How to cite this article: Saha MK, Bansal S, Chahar VS, Ali SZ, Barkalle G, Hora C. Assessment of Denture Hygiene Habits among Elderly Patients Wearing Complete Dentures. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(2):66-69.

Source of support: Nil

Conflicts of interest: None


ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Ajit Mishra, Arti Mishra

Assessment of Metallic and Ceramic Brackets Bond Strength withNew Adhesive Systems

[Year:2018] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:2] [Pages:118] [Pages No:70-72]



Introduction: Metallic brackets are the most commonly used brackets during fixed orthodontic treatment, but the metallic appearance is not acceptable for many patients. In recent years, orthodontic patients have become more aware of the importance of esthetic appearance. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the shear bond strength (SBS) of different metallic and ceramic brackets by two different adhesive systems.

Materials and Methods: A total of 68 caries-free human maxillary premolars were randomly assigned to four groups of 14 each. Group 1 consisted of metallic brackets bonded with Transbond XT; Group 2 consisted of metallic brackets bonded with Orthofix Adhesive system; and ceramic brackets bonded with Transbond XT and Orthofix adhesive system composed Groups 3 and 4, respectively. A universal testing machine was used to determine the SBS.

Results: The bond strength of metallic brackets was significantly lower than the ceramic ones. Ceramic brackets bonded with Orthofix adhesive system declared the bond strength close to Transbond adhesive system.

Conclusion: Although all adhesive systems provided adequate SBS values, Orthofix adhesive system requires further study with bigger sample size to compete with Transbond XT.

Keywords: Bond strength, Orthodontic adhesive materials, ARI

How to cite this article: Mishra A, Mishra A. Assessment of Metallic and Ceramic Brackets Bond Strength with New Adhesive Systems. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(2):70-72.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


REVIEW ARTICLE
Anagha Kochar, Amisha Shah, Ajit V Koshy, Ameera Mulla,Rohan Sohoni, Sana Shaikh

Tumor Microenvironment Tilling the Soil

[Year:2018] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:2] [Pages:118] [Pages No:73-76]



The cells surrounding a tumor make up a molecular micro-environment known as the stroma. The stroma can be influenced and can in turn influence the growth and formation of tumors and new metastases. Origination of this microenvi-ronment can be linked to the “seed and soil” concept with the original cancer cells, termed “seeds,” and the microen-vironment, termed “soil.” The “soil” made up of the proteins, growth factors, and other non-tumor cells is a crucial part of tumor formation, invasion, and metastasis. It is important to consider and understand the interplay between the microen-vironment and tumors when pursuing future therapeutics for cancers.

Keywords: Metastasis, Microenvironment, Molecular, Squamous cell carcinomas, Tumor.

How to cite this article: Kochar A, Shah A, Koshy AV, Mulla A, Sohoni R, Sohoni SS. Tumor Microenvironment Tilling the Soil. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(2):73-76.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


REVIEW ARTICLE
Kripa Patel, Krutika Patel

Age Assessment Methods: A Review

[Year:2018] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:2] [Pages:118] [Pages No:77-83]



Human growth is a composite of histologic and morphologic changes occurring from the beginning of prenatal life to senility influenced by genetics and environment. Precise age assessment is crucial in medical, dental, and forensic sciences. This review discusses various methods that are being used for age assessment.

Keywords: Biomarkers, Cervical vertebrae maturation indicators, Hand and wrist radiographs.

How to cite this article: Patel K, Patel K. Age Assessment Methods: A Review. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(2):77-83.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


REVIEW ARTICLE
Sana Shaikh, Amisha Shah, Ajit V Koshy, Anagha Kochar, Rohan Sohoni, Ariba Shaikh

Cancer Stem Cells - An Overview

[Year:2018] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:2] [Pages:118] [Pages No:84-87]



Cancer stem cells (CSC) have the ability to self-renew and are present in most tissues including breast, brain, lung, prostates, testis, ovary, esophagus, colon, and liver. Their origin is yet to be discovered, though a series of hypotheses have been proposed in this regard. CSCs play a role in not only the creation of cancer but also in its evolution, metastasis, and recurrence. CSCs have an important role in cancer therapy and the resistance towards chemotherapeutic agents. Acquisition of stemness involves epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), in which epithelial cells are transformed into a mesenchymal phenotype characterized by increased capacities for migration, invasiveness, and resistance to apoptosis. EMT may also contribute to metastasis by driving dissemination of mesen-chymal CSCs to distant locations, whereupon the CSCs revert to an epithelial phenotype to support metastatic tumor growth. Several different approaches to treatment aimed at overcoming the intrinsic resistance of CSCs to conventional therapies are currently being developed. These include agents targeting tumorigenic pathways, such as JAK2/STAT3 and PI3K/mTOR, and immunotherapies, including vaccines and natural killer cells employed to induce a T-cell response.

Keywords: Cancer stem cells, Metastasis, Recurrence, Resistance, Tumor microenvironment.

How to cite this article: Shaikh S, Shah A, Koshy AV, Kochar A, Sohoni R, Shaikh A. Cancer Stem Cells - An Overview. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(2):84-87.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


REVIEW ARTICLE
Mandar Todkar, Meehika Gaikwad, Saima Ali, Raghvendra Kumar,Mayank Das, Shradha Mohanty

Comprehensive Approach in Public Health Dentistry towardComplete Oral Health: A Review

[Year:2018] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:2] [Pages:118] [Pages No:88-92]



Public health dentistry (PHD) stands as the dental conscience of the nation. In India, PHD specialty has been doing its bit in improving the oral health status since its inception in 1969; there has been little to say about the achieving complete oral health for all. The present review study was undertaken to understand and analyze the current scenario of PHD, keeping in view the comprehensive approach toward achieving complete oral health.The different comprehensive approaches in PHD can be implemented effectively, that are as: the oral health promotion should be done in more innovative and effective manner with different areas as dental health advocacy and literacy campaign, national integrated health navigation system, school-based dental clinics and oral health education in school curriculum, dental health emergency helpline and response system, etc.; Also, the public-private partnership for the different health programmes, and broad-based collaboration around the oral health. As the Improvement in health-care delivery system to reach at grass-root level more extensively and reaching the rural areas by frequent rural dental health care programs; and the special dental health care wings for special care people. Therefore, the understanding of basics and complete implementation along with follow-up of all different comprehensive approaches, PHD, will be more significant toward complete oral health care.

Keywords: Community dentistry, Dental public health, Public health dentistry, Public health programmes, Public health.

How to cite this article: Todkar M, Gaikwad M, Ali S, Kumar R, Das M, Mohanty S. Comprehensive Approach in Public Health Dentistry toward Complete Oral Health: A Review. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(2):88-92.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


REVIEW ARTICLE
Danish Uz. Zama Khan, Karabi Das, Nishi Grover, Madhurjya Chakraborty,Sugandha Sharma, Pratim Talukdar

Indigenous Use of the Incredible Tree - Moringa Oleifera: A Review

[Year:2018] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:2] [Pages:118] [Pages No:93-97]



Moringa oleifera (MO) is a gift from the mind of God to the hands of man. This 4000-year-old herbal panacea plant has a magnificent diet therapy. This healing plant is an incredibly energizing product which helps in medical prevention. The fact that Moringa grows rapidly and easily makes it especially appealing for impoverished areas. Although its therapeutic properties are well known, its use for the well-being of humanity is less prevalent. The aim of this paper is to catalyze the efficacy of the miracle tree “MO.” Our search included the English terms such as diet therapy, healing plants, MO, therapeutic use in Google search engine, PubMed, and Medline from 1973 to 2016. We found very few articles showing the use of this plant in the treating dental diseases. We concluded that clinical benefits of in vivo studies were very little, thereby appealing for meticulous research of this nature’s marvel for the betterment of humankind.

Keywords: Diet therapy, Healing plants, Moringa oleifera.

How to cite this article: Khan DUZ, Das K, Grover N, Chakraborty M, Sharma S, Talukdar P. Indigenous Use of the Incredible Tree - Moringa Oleifera: A Review. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(2):93-97.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


CASE REPORT
Madhu Singh Ratre, Sumbul Nasir, Shaleen Khetarpal, Manish Verma

Effective Management of Periodontal Intraosseous Defects using combinationof Bioactive Glass + Platelet-rich Fibrin: A Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation

[Year:2018] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:2] [Pages:118] [Pages No:98-101]



Periodontitis is an infectious disease which causes loss of periodontal supportive tissue, and ultimately tooth loss. Regeneration of lost periodontal tissues is the chief goal of the periodontal therapies. Application of various bone grafts with and without combination of other materials/techniques has been shown improvement in clinical outcomes. Platelet rich fibrin (PRF) is a second generation platelet concentrate which releases growth factors, promoting regeneration. In the literature the combination of PRF and bioactive glass is been explored extensively. Hereby we present and discuss the successful management of periodontal intraosseous defects in two case reports by placement of combination of PRF and bioactive glass. There was significant clinical and radiographic outcomes in both the cases after one year of follow-up.

Keywords: Alloplastic bone graft, Bioactive glass, Growth factors, Intraosseous defect, Periodontal Regeneration, Platelete Rich Fibrin (PRF).

How to cite this article: Ratre MS, Nasir S, Khetarpal S, Verma M. Effective Management of Periodontal Intraosseous Defects using combination of Bioactive Glass + Platelet-rich Fibrin: A Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(2):98-101.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


CASE REPORT
Amee Patel, Dipti Choksi, Barkha Idnani

Anterior Esthetic Rehabilitation: Harmonizing the White and Pink

[Year:2018] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:2] [Pages:118] [Pages No:102-105]



Esthetics is the science of beauty, re-establishing dental esthetics is one of the most gratifying services that a dental professional can provide. When the complaint is associated with both hard and soft tissues, it becomes even more challenging to harmonize these structures. A multi-disciplinary approach is the preferred protocol for such cases. This article discusses a case report of successful rehabilitation of anterior esthetics involving both white and pink esthetics.

Keywords: Discolored tooth, Calcium hydroxide, Depigmentation, Gingivoplasty, Composite veneers

How to cite this article: Patel A, Choksi D, Idnani B. Anterior Esthetic Rehabilitation: Harmonizing the White and Pink. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(2):102-105.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


CASE REPORT
Kritant Bhushan, Rajnish Sahu, Anchal Mudgal

Nodular Fasciitis over Maxillary Gingival Region - A Case Report

[Year:2018] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:2] [Pages:118] [Pages No:106-109]



In this report, we describe a unique rare case of oronasal nodular fasciitis (NF) over a maxillary sinus region. NF is a benign reactive proliferation of fibroblasts that emerge from the soft tissues, and mostly extending from the muscular fascia to the subcutaneous tissue. The cause of such proliferation is mostly believed to be trauma because of the location of these lesions over bony prominences. In this report, we describe a unique case of oronasal NF aggravated by trauma in a 20-year-old female child over a maxillary sinus region. NF is also known as pseudosarcomatous fasciitis, pseudosarcomatous fibromato-sis, and infiltrative fasciitis owing to its rapid rate of growth, rich cellularity, and mitotic activity. Orofacial NF incidence is <20% and affecting primarily adults in 4th-5th decades of life along with review of literature.

Clinical Significance: NF can pose diagnostic dilemma so careful microscopic evaluation with clinical correlation required to differentiate this entity from other lesions to prevent unnecessary work-ups and overtreatment.

Keywords: Rapid mitotic activity, Trauma, Fibroblast, Orofacial nodular fasciitis.

How to cite this article: Bhushan K, Sahu R, Mudgal A. Nodular Fasciitis over Maxillary Gingival Region - A Case Report. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(2):106-109.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


CASE REPORT
Ami Kandya, Manish Verma, Unnati Pitale, Swati Goyal, Neelam Vijayvargiya

Localized Fibrous Overgrowth - Traumatic Fibroma: A Case Report

[Year:2018] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:2] [Pages:118] [Pages No:110-112]



Oral irritation fibroma is a benign scar-like reaction to chronic irritation in mouth, usually due to biting of lips, cheek, or rubbing of skin against a sharp tooth or prosthesis. It is a raised pedunculated/sessile lesion which may be few millimeters to centimeters in size with normal/ulcerated overlying mucosa. These lesions may grow aggressively and do not disappear without treatment and removal of irritant. This article describes a case of 10-year-old boy with an asymptomatic nodular lesion on lower labial mucosa associated with a root stump of lower left canine and chronic biting of lower lip. On removal of the root stump and discontinuing the habit of lip biting, the lesion started to shrink gradually and completely disappeared in 1 month. No surgical excision of the lesion was required once the irritant was removed. There was no recurrence of the lesion.

Keywords: Irritation fibroma, Lip biting, Oral traumatic fibroma.

How to cite this article: Kandya A, Verma M, Pitale U, Goyal S, Vijayvargiya N. Localized Fibrous Overgrowth - Traumatic Fibroma: A Case Report. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(2):     -112.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


CASE REPORT
Sarmestha Soni, Pooja Pani, Tapas Ku. Bala, Nishant

Idiopathic Gingival Fibromatosis: A Case Report

[Year:2018] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:2] [Pages:118] [Pages No:113-116]



Gingival fibromatosis is a heterogeneous group of enlargement characterized by progressive increase in submucosal connective tissue elements. Many cases are iatrogenic and some are inherited or idiopathic. This condition is usually part of a syndrome or rarely an isolated disorder. Gingival overgrowth as a clinical characteristic of idiopathic gingival fibro-matosis causes dental complications which worsens patients’ adaptation in daily emotional, social, and functional requirements. Here, we present a rare case of a non-syndromic idiopathic gingival fibromatosis in an 11-year-old child. The diagnosis was made based on history, clinical examination, radiographic findings, and histology. Gingivectomy was carried out in all four quadrants under local anesthesia. No recurrence was observed during the follow-up, and the patient showed remarkable esthetic and functional improvement.

Keywords: Gingival fibromatosis, Gingivectomy, Syndromes.

How to cite this article: Soni S, Pani P, Bala TK, Nishant. Idiopathic Gingival Fibromatosis: A Case Report. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(2):113-116.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


SHORT COMMUNICATION
C Tony Thomas, Sreeprabha G Mohan, Rajan Sharanya Raj

Method of Using an Articulating Paper to Locate the Interferencesduring an Insertion of Prosthesis

[Year:2018] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:2] [Pages:118] [Pages No:117-118]



Removable partial denture insertion is a very challenging procedure even for an experienced clinician. Even after the block out, the denture needs minor adjustments during the insertion. This article explains about an easy method of using an articulating paper for correct identification of interferences. This is very important during prosthesis insertion, and this prevents the unnecessary over trimming of the denture base.

Keywords: Articulating paper, Interferences, Over trimming, Prosthesis insertion.

How to cite this article: Thomas CT, Mohan SG, Raj RS. Method of Using an Articulating Paper to Locate the Interferences during an Insertion of Prosthesis. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(2):117-118.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


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