Current Issue Volume 5, Number 1 , January-March 2018

ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Praveena Shetty, Vivek Amin, Raghava Siddharth, Chris L Saldanha, Sheehan R Dsouza

Chemical Plaque Removal Efficacy in Subjects with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances: A Comparative Study

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:1] [Pages:99] [Pages No:1-4]



Introduction: Orthodontics has become a vital part of dentistry. Maintaining oral hygiene is very critical, particularly prior to and during orthodontic treatment. Almost all patients with fixed orthodontic appliance will get gingivitis at some point during the treatment. So, the present study was conducted to evaluate the plaque removal efficacy of different mouthwashes in subjects with fixed orthodontic appliances.

Materials and methods: A total of 45 subjects were involved in this study. And these were randomly allotted three groups, i.e., group I: Neem mouthwash, group II: Aloe vera mouthwash, and group III: Chlorhexidine mouthwash. Clinical examination was done using plaque index (PI) and gingival index (GI) at baseline and after 1 month. Data were summarized using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 20. Paired t-test was used to analyze the statistical significance.

Results: Among all the three different mouthwash groups, group III (chlorhexidine mouthwash) showed a maximum plaque reduction after 1 month (0.312 ± 0.112), followed by group I (neem mouthwash) 0.516 ± 0.202, group II (aloe vera mouthwash) 0.844 ± 0.012. Significant difference was found in the reduction of plaque scores among all the three groups. In GI score, group III (chlorhexidine mouthwash) showed a maximum reduction after 1 month. (0.290 ± 0.028), followed by group I (neem mouthwash) 0.320 ± 0.022, group II (aloe vera mouthwash) 0.680 ± 0.028. Significant difference was found in chlorhexidine mouthwash and neem mouthwash groups.

Conclusion: The present study concluded that both neem and aloe vera mouthwashes can be used as an alternative to chlorhexidine mouthwash, as they reduced PI score significantly and it could be helpful to orthodontic subjects in maintaining their oral hygiene.

Keywords: Dental plaque, Fixed orthodontic appliances, Gingivitis, Mouthwash.

How to cite this article: Shetty P, Amin V, Siddharth R, Saldanha CL, Dsouza SR. Chemical Plaque Removal Efficacy in Subjects with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances: A Comparative Study. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(1):1-4.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Poorva Chouksey, Adarsha M Shankaregowda, Usha H Lingareddy, Ashwini Paramashivaiah, Vijayalakshmi Lakshminarasimhaiah, Upasana Lingaiah

An in vitro Analysis of Different Desensitizing Agents applied on Human Dentin

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:1] [Pages:99] [Pages No:5-10]



The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of four topical desensitizing agents on dentinal tubule impediment utilizing confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Buccal cervical areas of 45 extracted human molars were smoothed and wetcleaned with SiC paper, trialed by utilization of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) so as to mimic the clinical aspect of overly sensitive dentin of cervical surfaces.
The teeth were randomly divided into one control group (n = 5) and four experimental groups, as indicated by the dentin surface treatments: group I: GLU; group II: MSC; group III: NAN; group IV: TMD; group V: control. The samples were analyzed under the confocal laser examining magnifying lens. The extents of totally blocked, halfway impeded, and open tubules inside each group were calculated.
The ratios of totally and incompletely blocked tubules to the total tubules for all the groups were determined, and the data were statistically analyzed utilizing nonparametric tests and statistical significance was calculated. The depth of penetration was greatest for MS Coat (1.35), while it was least for Gluma (1.07). The difference among all the groups was not statistically significant for depth of penetration. Gluma desensitizer demonstrated all the more totally impeded tubules (0.44) as well as partially blocked tubules (0.37). The distinctions among all the groups were statistically significant for tubule impediment (p ≤ 0.05).

Keywords: Confocal laser microscopy, Dentinal hypersensitivity, Topical desensitizing agents.

How to cite this article: Chouksey P, Shankaregowda AM, Lingareddy UH, Paramashivaiah A, Lakshminarasimhaiah V, Lingaiah U. An in vitro Analysis of Different Desensitizing Agents applied on Human Dentin. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(1):5-10.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Puthiya P Jeeva, Anupama S Gopinathan, Jaini J Lalithamma, Rita Zarina, Ambika S Sibi

Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Leaf Extracts of Moringa, Laxmitaru, Mullatha, and Communist Paccha against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans : An in vitro Study

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:1] [Pages:99] [Pages No:11-14]



Introduction: General health depends on the oral health. A vast majority of synthetic antimicrobial agents were developed to control oral infections. Side effects and drug resistance of these antimicrobial agents became barrier in successful treatment. Global scenario is now changing toward the use of nontoxic and eco-friendly products. Medicinal plant extracts are emerging as alternative to synthetic drugs.

Aim: This in vitro study evaluated antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts of Moringa, Laxmitaru, Mullatha, and Communist paccha against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans.

Materials and methods: Ethanolic leaf extracts of Moringa, Laxmitaru, Mullatha, and Communist paccha were prepared. E. faecalis and C. albicans were cultured on agar plates and leaf extracts were added. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Ethanol was used as positive control. Agar well diffusion test was performed and zone of inhibition was calculated in millimeter. Result was analyzed statistically.

Results: Ethanolic extract of Mullatha leaf showed maximum zone of inhibition followed by Moringa, Laxmitaru, and Communist paccha against E. faecalis and C. albicans respectively

Conclusion: Study suggested the use of leaf extracts of Moringa, Laxmitaru, Mullatha, and Communist paccha as endodontic irrigant and as antifungal agent in oral candidal infections.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Candida albicans, Communist paccha, Enterococcus faecalis, Laxmitaru, Moringa, Mullatha.

How to cite this article: Jeeva PP, Gopinathan AS, Lalithamma JJ, Zarina R, Sibi AS. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Leaf Extracts of Moringa, Laxmitaru, Mullatha, and Communist Paccha against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans: An in vitro Study. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(1):11-14.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Dheeraj Sharma, Varun Dahiya, Pradeep Shukla, Preeti Shukla, Gaurav Malhotra, Chander S Joshi

Comparative Evaluation of Gingival Crevicular Blood Glucose Levels Pre- and Postscaling and Root Planing with Capillary Blood Glucose Levels in Diabetic Patients with Chronic Periodontitis: A Clinical Study

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:1] [Pages:99] [Pages No:15-20]



The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of gingival crevicular blood (GCB) for assessment of blood glucose level as a chairside test in the dental clinics and evaluate the influence of Phase I periodontal therapy on the glycemic control of diabetic subjects. A comparative evaluation of glucose levels of gingival blood and fingerstick capillary blood was done before the periodontal therapy and 45 days after the periodontal therapy. Totally, 50 known diabetic patients having untreated moderate-to-severe periodontitis in the age group of 25 to 60 years from the Department of Periodontology and Implantology, D. J. College of Dental Sciences and Research, Modinagar, India, were selected for the study. Patients requiring antibiotic premedication, any disorder that is accompanied by an abnormally low or high hematocrit, having intake of substances that interfere with the coagulation system, severe cardiovascular, hepatic, immunologic, renal, hematological, or other organ disorders were excluded from the study. Glucose levels were measured from the gingival blood using glucometer and from the capillary blood (finger puncture method) using glucometer during dental examination. Phase I periodontal therapy was carried out in all the patients, and the blood glucose levels were measured at baseline and 45th day after the periodontal treatment. Using statistical analysis, the glucose levels of GCB and capillary blood glucose levels were analyzed and compared. The analysis showed no statistically significant difference in blood glucose levels between the two above-mentioned groups. With this study, we can arrive at the conclusions that GCB can provide an acceptable source for measuring blood glucose in the study’s specific glucose self-monitor, and it can be used for the dental office evaluation of blood glucose level. A better glycemic control is observed in diabetic subjects after the Phase I periodontal therapy. Hence, prevention and control of periodontal disease should be considered as an integral part of diabetes control.

Keywords: Capillary blood glucose, Diabetes, Gingival crevicular blood glucose.

How to cite this article: Sharma D, Dahiya V, Shukla P, Shukla P, Malhotra G, Joshi CS. Comparative Evaluation of Gingival Crevicular Blood Glucose Levels Pre- and Postscaling and Root Planing with Capillary Blood Glucose Levels in Diabetic Patients with Chronic Periodontitis: A Clinical Study. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(1):15-20.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Vinay K Gupta, Gaurav Mishra, Seema Malhotra, Anil Ahuja, Jyotsna Mishra

Oral Hygiene Awareness and Practices among Patients attending Outpatient Department at Dental College, Lucknow

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:1] [Pages:99] [Pages No:21-24]



Introduction: Dental care is sometimes generally underestimated by people due to lack of awareness or sometimes due to busy life. Increase in periodontal problem is noticed in Indian population due to negligence. So, importance of dental care is always underestimated; at the same time, the need for regular dental visit and reinforcement or oral health education cannot be neglected.

Aim: To assess oral hygiene awareness and practices among patients attending the outpatient department (OPD) at Dental College, Lucknow, India.

Materials and methods: A total of 281 patients attending the OPD at Dental College, Lucknow, India, were selected for the study. The samples selected were aged between 16 and 90 years. A self-constructed questionnaire was prepared and presented to the patients. Choices of questions were based on knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding oral health, such as type of brush used, frequency of brushing, reason of changing toothbrush, type of bristles, and behavior toward dental treatment. Responses from the patients were evaluated statistically.

Results: Out of 281 patients, 210 (74.7%) said that they use toothbrush regularly, so the most common instrument used for oral hygiene practice was toothbrush, and the second most commonly used oral hygiene aid was chewing stick, i.e., 17.7%. Majority of study participants (71.8%) said that they brush once a day, whereas 24.9% said that they brush twice daily. However, only 1.7% patients were found using mouthwash and none of the study participants were using any kind of interdental aids, so overall lack in knowledge, attitude, and practices among people was seen with respect to oral hygiene practices.

Conclusion: The study shows that a large number of people have started using soft brushes. Majority of people are changing toothbrush at recommended interval, but the horizontal pattern of brushing is still more common among people. Use of oral hygiene aids like mouthwash and dental floss was found to be less. Though most of the people use toothbrush and toothpaste, still there is requirement for educational program to increase awareness regarding oral health. Whenever a patient visits a dental college OPD for any problem, they must be educated and motivated regarding prevention of oral diseases, preferably through oral health education section/museum present at the dental college. At the same time, toothbrushing demonstration section should also be set up at every dental college for educating the correct technique of toothbrushing.

Keywords: Awareness, Motivation, Oral hygiene, Toothpaste.

How to cite this article: Gupta VK, Mishra G, Malhotra S, Ahuja A, Mishra J. Oral Hygiene Awareness and Practices among Patients attending Outpatient Department at Dental College, Lucknow. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(1):21-24.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Ningthoukhongjam S Singh, Sachidananda Chungkham, Ningthoukhongjam R Devi, Ahanthem N Devi

Evaluation of the Efficacy of Diode Laser as an Adjunct to Scaling and Root Planing in the Treatment of Chronic Periodontitis: A Clinical and Microbiological Study

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:1] [Pages:99] [Pages No:25-29]



Aim: To evaluate the clinical and microbiological effects of diode laser used as an adjunctive therapy to scaling and root planing (SRP) to that of SRP and laser alone for the treatment of chronic periodontitis (CP).

Materials and methods: Forty patients with chronic generalized periodontitis were recruited for the study, out of which 120 sites are treated and grouped as follows: group I (40 sites were treated with SRP), group II (40 sites were treated with SRP followed by adjunctive diode laser therapy), and group III (40 sites were treated with diode laser alone). The following clinical parameters were evaluated at baseline and 10 weeks after therapy: gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level (CAL). Subgingival plaque samples were collected into a vial containing 1 mL transport medium, i.e., thioglycolate broth medium and transported to laboratory for anaerobic culture.

Results: At 10 weeks, all groups demonstrated significant enhancements with respect to every single clinical parameter contrasted to baseline (all p < 0.05). There were no significant differences among groups as far as changes of clinical parameters in any time interval (all p > 0.05). Likewise at 10 weeks after treatment, the microbiological examination demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in bacterial count (BC) compared with baseline (p < 0.05), but there were no significant differences among groups with respect to BC in any time interval (all p > 0.05).

Conclusion: Taking everything into account, the present study demonstrated that the use of diode laser as an adjunct to conventional periodontal treatment (i.e., SRP) and diode laser alone demonstrated no extra advantages contrasted with conventional periodontal treatment (i.e., SRP).

Keywords: Chronic periodontitis, Diode laser, Scaling and root planing.

How to cite this article: Singh NS, Chungkham S, Devi NR, Devi AN. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Diode Laser as an Adjunct to Scaling and Root Planing in the Treatment of Chronic Periodontitis: A Clinical and Microbiological Study. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(1):25-29.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Shweta D Mishra, R Sushma, Rakshit C Guru, Renuka Makani

A Survey to assess the Fear and Anxiety of Patients prior to Prosthodontic Treatment.

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:1] [Pages:99] [Pages No:30-36]



Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the degree of dental fear and anxiety experienced by a patient prior to prosthodontic treatment, to establish a comfortable patient-dentist relationship, which would help in framing a better treatment plan, evaluate the major cause of avoidance of dental treatment, and assist the dentist in management of anxious patient.

Materials and methods: This cross-sectional questionnairebased study was conducted among 379 patients to determine the dental fear and anxiety experienced by a patient prior to prosthodontics treatment. Dental fear was assessed with the help of visual analog scale (VAS). Dental anxiety was assessed with the help of modified dental anxiety scale (MDAS). A questionnaire was handed over to the patient to get their personal details and to assess the degree of dental fear and anxiety experienced by patient and the purpose of study was explained to each and every participant.

Results: According to chi-square test, Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance (ANOVA) test, and Mann-Whitney U test, females are more fearful than males. According to statistical analysis, mean fear among the study participants was 24.27 and anxiety was 10.02. Among the different age groups, mean anxiety was highest in age group 18 to 27, which was 10.36 and lowest in 58+ age group, which was 7.44. According to Mann-Whitney U test, females are more afraid to visit the dental clinic where mean value is 2.18.

Conclusion: Based on the results, it can be concluded that anxiety is higher in females compared with males and according to age, the most anxious age group is young age, i.e., 18 to 27. Females were more prone to cancel their appointment, and also get more fearful and anxious by seeing the instruments.

Clinical significance: It helps in the management of fearful and anxious patient.

Keywords: Anxiety, Assess, Fear, Visual analog scale.

How to cite this article: Mishra SD, Sushma R, Guru RC, Makani R. A Survey to assess the Fear and Anxiety of Patients prior to Prosthodontic Treatment. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(1):30-36.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Sweta Pisulkar, Rajiv Bhola, Ashok J Pakhan, Surekha R Godbole, Trupti Dahane

Prevalence of Types of Soft Palate in Indian Population in Wardha Region, Maharashtra, India: An in vivo Study

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:1] [Pages:99] [Pages No:37-40]



An area of soft tissue along the junction of the hard and soft palate on which pressure, within physiologic limits of the tissues, can be applied by a denture to aid in its retention can be defined as the posterior palatal seal (PPS). The functions of PPS are to provide retention, to prevent food from getting under the base of the denture, to diminish the gag reflex, to make the denture less conspicuous to the tongue, and to counteract denture warpage due to dimensional changes during the curing process by providing a thick border. The location and recording of the PPS, although being a very significant step, are still a frequently neglected procedure, because of lack of proper knowledge. Clinically, various different locations of the vibrating line resulted from different methods. This study was therefore designed to evaluate if the posterior and anterior vibrating lines could be distinguished as separate lines of flexion and to evaluate type of soft palate among Indian population, i.e., Wardha population. The following conclusions were made, from the above study: (a) Two separate lines of flexion could be located in Indian population, when the appropriate action was elicited for the posterior and anterior vibrating lines; (b) in flat group (group III), the vibrating line was farther posteriorly (i.e., closer to a line joining both hamular notches), resulting in the broadest PPS area, whereas the posterior extension of the PPS area in the deep vault was less than in groups II (medium) and III (deep). (c) In group III (flat), the width of the PPS area was greater than in groups I (deep) and II (medium). This width was the least in group I (deep).

Keywords: Anterior, Hamular notch, Posterior palatal seal, Posterior vibrating lines.

How to cite this article: Pisulkar S, Bhola R, Pakhan AJ, Godbole SR, Dahane T. Prevalence of Types of Soft Palate in Indian Population in Wardha Region, Maharashtra, India: An in vivo Study. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(1):37-40.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Doddarayapete N Umashankar, Yapi Jamoh, Narasimhamurthy Srinath, R Mahesh Kumar

Laser-assisted Lip Repositioning for Gummy Smile

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:1] [Pages:99] [Pages No:41-47]



Aim: The present study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of laser-assisted lip repositioning for gummy smile correction.

Materials and methods: This was a prospective study with sample size of 10 patients with a gummy smile of more than 3 mm. Clinical assessment of pre- and postoperative lip length at rest and at smile was done. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey test and Chi-square test were used for statistical tabulation.

Results: On assessing, the mean value of pre-op gingival display was 5.4 mm , postoperative 6 months showed a mean value of 1.9 mm The results were statistically significant. Measurement of lip length showed pre-op mean value of 19.20 mm at rest and 14.20 mm at smile; postoperative results at 6 months was estimated at 20.1 mm at rest and 15.7 mm while smiling, p=0.460 lip length at rest and p= 0.082 lip length at smile.

Conclusion: It is an efficient technique for correction of gummy smile and an excellent alternative to more costly procedures with high morbidity rates. It is also minimally invasive with minimal postoperative swelling and pain. But extensive research is definitely imperative so as to increase its range of application.

Keywords: Diode laser, Gummy smile, Lip repositioning.

How to cite this article: Umashankar DN, Jamoh Y, Srinath N, Kumar RM. Laser-assisted Lip Repositioning for Gummy Smile. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(1):41-47.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Doddarayapete N Umashankar, Partha S Saha, Narasimhamurthy Srinath, R Mahesh Kumar, Chaitra Patil, Priyanka D Jesabel

Efficacy of Sodium Carboxymethyl in Mandibular Extraction Sockets

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:1] [Pages:99] [Pages No:48-54]



Aim: The present study was carried out to assess the wound healing, bone formation, and preservation after placing sodium carboxymethyl starch in mandibular extraction sockets.

Materials and methods: A prospective study with a sample size of 60 where 30 patients received sodium carboxymethyl on one of the mandibular extraction sockets as the test group and contralateral side was used as the control group. Student’s paired t-test and McNemar test were used for statistical tabulation.

Results: On assessing bone density, the test group showed more mean values of bone density 2.33 HU, p-value of 0.14 in 3rd month, and 2.37 HU, p-value of 0.04 in 6th month postoperative respectively.

Conclusion: Placement of sodium carboxymethyl starch significantly increases the bone density during regeneration of extraction sockets which might promise us good quality of bone formation. However, further research in the material and a longer follow-up period are desirable for a definitive conclusion.

Keywords: Bone density and preservation of bone, Bone healing, Sodium carboxymethyl, Wound healing.

How to cite this article: Umashankar DN, Saha PS, Srinath N, Kumar RM, Patil C, Jesabel PD. Efficacy of Sodium Carboxymethyl in Mandibular Extraction Sockets. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(1):48-54.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Upasana Lingaiah, Latha S, Adarsha M Shankaregowda, Vijayalakshmi Lakshminarasimhaiah, Shivekshith A Krishna, Vijayshankar L Virupaksha

Association of Oral Candidal Carriage, Candidiasis, and Periodontal Disease with the Degree of Glycemic Control in Type I and Type II Diabetes Mellitus

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:1] [Pages:99] [Pages No:55-58]



Aim: To assess the possible association of candidal carriage, candidal infection, periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus with glycemic control.

Materials and methods: This study enrolled 100 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) (50 type I and 50 type II diabetics) visiting the “Jnana Sanjeevani Diabetes Centre,” Bengaluru, and 100 nondiabetic subjects visiting the outpatient Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, RajaRajeswari Dental College & Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
The study subjects were analyzed for their glycemic status by evaluating the hemoglobin A1c levels. All the subjects were clinically examined for the signs and symptoms of candidiasis. All subjects were analyzed for their periodontal status by using Russel’s periodontal index for field studies and the presence of oral candida by quantitative culture of saliva samples on Sabouraud dextrose agar.
Comparisons between the study group and control group were done for the presence of oral candidal carriage, oral candidiasis, and periodontal status. Correlation of glycemic control and type of diabetes with periodontal disease status was analyzed.

Results: The prevalence of high candidal carriage [>400 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL] was significantly more in the study group (p < 0.001) compared with the controls. High candidal carriage was significantly increased in patients with poor glycemic status (55.6%) (p = 0.002). Candidal carriage was higher in type II diabetics, but not significant (p = 0.822). Prevalence of poor periodontal status was significantly more associated with the study group (p < 0.001). Glycemic control is significantly correlated with periodontal status with a p < 0.001. Poor periodontal status is significantly associated with type II diabetes than type I (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: The present study establishes that diabetes predisposes to high oral candidal carriage when compared with nondiabetics. Among diabetics, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of high candidal carriage between type I and type II diabetics. A positive association was seen between poor glycemic control and the prevalence of high candidal carriage. The study also reinforces that DM is a risk factor for periodontal disease. Poor glycemic control is positively associated with increased severity of periodontal disease.

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Glycemic control, Oral candidiasis, Periodontitis.

How to cite this article: Lingaiah U, Latha S, Shankaregowda AM, Lakshminarasimhaiah V, Krishna SA, Virupaksha VL. Association of Oral Candidal Carriage, Candidiasis, and Periodontal Disease with the Degree of Glycemic Control in Type I and Type II Diabetes Mellitus. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(1):55-58.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Priyamvada Bhatia, Dennis V Abraham, Abdul S Khan, Chandan Singh, Raghav Agarwal, Deepak Patel

Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice regarding Management of Oral Cancer and Oral Precancerous Lesions among Oral Surgeons in Chhattisgarh State, India

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:1] [Pages:99] [Pages No:59-63]



Aims and objectives: The present study is conducted to explore the knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding management of oral precancerous and cancerous lesions among oral surgeons.

Materials and methods: The present study is a cross-sectional, questionnaire descriptive study conducted in Chhattisgarh state, India. The study was conducted from April to May 2017. The study participants were dental specialists who had passed their master’s degree in subject of oral and maxillofacial surgery.

Results: According to 30 (42%) oral surgeons, tobacco is the main etiology of oral cancer or precancerous lesions. Nonscrapable white lesions are the most common early manifestation of oral cancer as reported by 38 (52%) study participants. Majority of study participants [66 (92%)] agreed with the statement that prognosis of oral precancerous lesions and oral cancer depends on early detection. Only 18 (25%) study participants regularly read journals, read books, and attend workshops to keep updated about current knowledge about management of oral cancer and precancerous lesions.

Conclusion: It has been concluded that oral surgeons had a good knowledge, positive attitude, and good practices regarding the management of oral cancer and oral precancerous lesions among oral surgeons.

Keywords: Attitude, Knowledge, Oral cancer, Oral precancerous, Practice.

How to cite this article: Bhatia P, Abraham DV, Khan AS, Singh C, Agarwal R, Patel D. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice regarding Management of Oral Cancer and Oral Precancerous Lesions among Oral Surgeons in Chhattisgarh State, India. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(1):59-63.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL ARTICLE
V Chandrakala, S Deepmala

A Clinical Survey to evaluate Postinsertion Problems of Patients wearing Complete Dentures

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:1] [Pages:99] [Pages No:64-67]



Introduction: Edentulism is the result of tooth loss which compromises quality of a patient by yielding poor health. For such patients, removable complete denture is one of the options among various treatment modalities and patient satisfaction becomes a more important determinant in the prognosis of complete denture therapy. After denture insertion, patients may experience difficulty in wearing complete denture and many patients may not be aware of limited efficiency of complete dentures. The present study aimed to assess most common reasons of postinsertion denture problems and its frequency among conventional complete dentures (CCDs) and biofunctional prosthetic system (BPS) dentures.

Materials and methods: This study was carried out on 92 patients grouped into two, wearing CCDs and BPS dentures fabricated by a prosthodontist, with an age range between 45 and 87 years. After placement of dentures, details of postinsertion problems at each visit were recorded by asking questions which followed standard questionnaire.

Results: Patients wearing BPS dentures showed least postinsertion corrections with high acceptance rate compared with CCDs. Also, mastication and speech problems of CCDs ranged highest compared with discomfort problems followed by other problems and problems of appearance.

Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, the biofunctional prosthesis had least corrections with high acceptance rate compared with conventional dentures in regard to many factors. Patients wearing complete dentures require periodic recall visits about denture maintenance, and a thorough knowledge about clinical and lab procedures of denture fabrication provides best guidance for lab technicians by a professional, thus ensuring complete denture success.

Keywords: Biofunctional prosthetic system dentures, Comfort, Complete denture therapy, Denture placement, Postinsertion problem.

How to cite this article: Chandrakala V, Deepmala S. A Clinical Survey to evaluate Postinsertion Problems of Patients wearing Complete Dentures. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(1):64-67.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Julie G Alapatt, Noxy G Manjuran, Jaini L Jaini, Thankappan P Sreelal, Harshakumar Karunakaran, R Ravichandran

Effect of Diameter and Surface Treatments on the Retentivity of New Esthetic Posts

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:1] [Pages:99] [Pages No:68-75]



Aims and objectives: To determine and compare the retention of different esthetic post systems within the root canal, i.e., zirconium dioxide ceramic post (Zr post) (Cosmopost Ivoclar Vivadent) and glass fiber-reinforced composite post (FRC post) (Twin Luscent Anchor, Dentatus, USA), and the effect of increase in diameter and different surface treatments on the retentivity of these posts.

Materials and methods: A total number of 24 prefabricated endodontic posts, including 18 Zr post and six glass FRC post, were used for the study. Two diameters of Zr post, i.e., 1.4 and 1.7 mm, and two diameters of FRC post, 1.3 and 1.6 mm, were used. The Zr posts were divided into three main groups and subjected to three different surface treatments. The first group (group I) served as the control group and was given no surface treatment; instead, it was used as obtained from the manufacturer. The second group (group II) was given a surface treatment of airborne particle abrasion using 110 μm alumina particles. The third group (group III) was ground evenly with a coarse grit diamond bur mounted on a high-speed handpiece. The fourth group (group IV) constituted the FRC post and this group of posts was not given any surface treatment. Thus, the total sample size was fixed as 24 with 6 each to groups I, II, III, and IV. In each of these four groups, three posts each will be with 1.4 and 1.7 mm diameter, respectively. These samples were tested for retentivity, in an Instron universal testing machine.

Results: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), small sample Student’s t-test, and Pearson correlation coefficient were the statistical tools employed to analyze the observations. The glass FRC post group IV were reported to have the greatest retentivity, followed by group II. When airborne particle abrasion with 110 μm alumina on the Zr posts significantly improved its retention, and were related in a linear fashion, the surface roughening with coarse diamond bur on Zr post failed to do so. Both groups I and III did not show any increase in retentivity with an increase in the diameter. Group IV showed an increase in retentivity when the diameter of the posts was increased.

Conclusion: Clinical implications of the study are that in highly demanding situations of esthetics and fracture, the zirconium dioxide ceramic post after airborne particle abrasion with 110 μm alumina is a promising restoration, provided the individual is not a bruxer or engaged in sports where there is a risk of tooth fracture. Even though zirconia post showed better fracture resistance than glass fiber-reinforced posts, the cost factor, retention, and its free availability make the glass FRC posts a promising endodontic restoration for badly damaged teeth.

Keywords: Retentivity, Surface treatment, Zirconia post.

How to cite this article: Alapatt JG, Manjuran NG, Jaini JL, Sreelal TP, Karunakaran H, Ravichandran R. Effect of Diameter and Surface Treatments on the Retentivity of New Esthetic Posts. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(1):68-75.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


RESEARCH ARTICLE
Aastha, Keshav K Gautam, Rahul Aggarwal, Vinod K Upadhya

Oral Health Status of Children with Cerebral Palsy attending Center for Individuals with Special Health care Needs

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:1] [Pages:99] [Pages No:76-79]



Aim: The aim of this study was to assess and compare the oral health status of cerebral palsy (CP) children attending a day care center for various age groups, gender, and socioeconomic background.

Materials and methods: Fifty-one subjects were selected out of which 49 reported. This study was carried out as a part of an oral health camp organized by us and consent was obtained from school authorities before the screening. School authorities provided the needed information during the screening by filling a questionnaire completed by the teachers. All the attending subjects were examined using standard World Health Organization methods and oral health indices to assess dental caries, oral hygiene status.

Results: Fifty-one subjects aged 6 to 20 years comprising 65% males and 35% females participated in the study. Over 85% were from parents of poor and middle-level educational background. The mean decayed, missing, filled teeth (dmft/DMFT) index score was seen to significantly increase with age, while there was no significant difference across gender and socioeconomic background. The oral hygiene status was mostly fair and poor for most of the population, while mean oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) had no significant difference for age, gender, and socioeconomic background.

Conclusion: The prevalence of dental caries was high for the subjects in this study which increased with age. The results point toward lack of awareness and negligence for oral health care.

Clinical significance: The CP children would benefit from modification of diet by educating the parents, improved oral hygiene habits and regular visits to the dentists and steps should be taken to improve that.

Keywords: Cerebral palsy, Dental caries, Oral hygiene special child.

How to cite this article: Aastha, Gautam KK, Aggarwal R, Upadhya VK. Oral Health Status of Children with Cerebral Palsy attending Center for Individuals with Special Health care Needs. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(1):76-79.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


REVIEW ARTICLE
Devina Pradhan, Lokesh Sharma, Mayank Das, Neha, Mandar Todkar, Saima Ali

A Review on Stem Cells Approach in Dentistry: A Boon or Bane for the Dental Professionals?

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:1] [Pages:99] [Pages No:80-82]



Stem cell technology is an emerging field. The regeneration of body parts is hardly a new concept. Stem cells have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body during early life and growth. In many tissues, stem cells serve as a sort of internal repair system, dividing essentially without limit to replenish other cells. Scientists primarily worked with two kinds of stem cells from animals and humans, such as the embryonic stem cells and nonembryonic somatic or adult stem cells. In the past decades, great interest has arisen in research in the field of stem cells, which may have important applications in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and cell therapy as well as gene therapy. There is, however, much to be investigated about the specific characteristics, such as the efficacy and safety of the new drugs based on this type of cells. Cell therapy is based on the transplantation of live cells into an organism in order to repair a tissue or restore lost or defective functions. Stem cell research is still in its emerging stages of development and the market related to cell therapy is, therefore, highly immature, but the results achieved to date raise great expectations. With an understanding of these basic aspects, other specific objectives related to studies of cellular differentiation and physiology can be focused on. These insights will be helpful in enhancing the knowledge, prevention, and treatment of certain congenital or acquired defects. Furthermore, it is expected that research in stem cells applications and the use of different stem cell therapies will soon come to be considered as viable alternate or adjuvant therapies in clinical dentistry.

Keywords: Differentiation, Regeneration, Somatic or adult stem cells, Stem cell therapy, Stem cells.

How to cite this article:Pradhan D, Sharma L, Das M, Neha, Todkar M, Ali S. A Review on Stem Cells Approach in Dentistry: A Boon or Bane for the Dental Professionals? Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(1):80-82.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


REVIEW ARTICLE
Pavithra K Ramanna

Standardizing Shade Matching with Technology-based Shade Matching Systems and Color Formulation

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:1] [Pages:99] [Pages No:83-86]



Precision in shade matching and color reproduction is vital for esthetic success of prostheses. Conventional shade matching technique is subjective and can provide inconsistent results. However, technology-based systems allow for standardization and repeatability in shade matching.

This study reviews technology-based shade matching systems and their role in standardized shade determination. It also discusses the concept of computer color matching (CCM) using Kubelka-Munk theory, which correlates the concentration of dyes or pigments in a colored layer to the reflectance properties of that layer. Computer color formulation has been used with success in various industries, such as printing and textile industries. This study considers its applicability in dentistry.

Keywords: Color measurement, Colorimeter, Computer color matching, Kubelka-Munk theory, Spectrophotometer.

How to cite this article: Ramanna PK. Standardizing Shade Matching with Technology-based Shade Matching Systems and Color Formulation. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(1):83-86.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


CASE REPORT
Deoyani Doifode, Nupur Ninawe, Vishal Khandelwal, Rakesh Bahadure, Devendra Nagpal, Shikar P Chouhan

Nasoalveolar Molding in Infant with Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:1] [Pages:99] [Pages No:87-90]



Introduction: Since the 1950s, presurgical infant orthopedics has been in use as an adjunctive neonatal therapy for the correction of cleft lip and palate. Nasoalveolar molding is used successfully to reshape the nasal cartilage and to mold the maxillary arch before surgical repairing cleft lip.

Aim: The aim of the present study is to correct cleft lip and palate by using nasoalveolar molding (NAM).

Case report: We describe the case of a 2-day-old baby who presented with unilateral cleft lip and palate, which was corrected by the NAM technique. First, we describe the use of acrylic which is attached to the vestibular shield of an oral molding plate in order to mold the nasal alar cartilages into its normal form and site during the neonatal period. This technique takes benefit of the flexibility of immature cartilage and its capability to sustain a permanent correction of its form. This article presents the appliance design, clinical management, and biomechanical principles of NAM therapy.

Conclusion: Use of NAM has removed surgical scars related to conventional columella reconstruction and has decreased the number and price of revised surgical procedures.

Keywords: Cleft lip and palate, Nasoalveolar molding, Presurgical orthopedics.

How to cite this article: Doifode D, Ninawe N, Khandelwal V, Bahadure R, Nagpal D, Chouhan SP. Nasoalveolar Molding in Infant with Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(1):87-90.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


CASE REPORT
Jyotsna Patel, Shweta Devi, Shraddha Supnekar, Narayani Deshpande, R Krishnakumar

Compound Composite Odontoma diagnosed using Various Radiographic Examinations

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:1] [Pages:99] [Pages No:91-95]



Odontomas are benign lesions that take origin from dental tissues. They are generally classified into complex and composite type. Odontomas are usually asymptomatic but may present with signs and symptoms relating to their presence. The present case report is based on incidental finding of odontoma detected on routine radiographic examination of a 16-year-old female patient, who complained of over-retained deciduous tooth and missing of permanent tooth in maxillary anterior region of jaw. Various radiographic examinations using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) were performed, which exhibited compound odontoma. The lesion was surgically operated and given for histopathological examination. Final diagnosis was given based on biopsy report obtained after surgical removal of the lesion.

Keywords: Compound odontoma, Cone beam computed tomography, Hamartomas, Odontoma, Retained deciduous tooth.

How to cite this article: Patel J, Devi S, Supnekar S, Deshpande N, Krishnakumar R. Compound Composite Odontoma diagnosed using Various Radiographic Examinations. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(1):91-95.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


CASE REPORT
Vijay Bagul, Sameer Parhad, Manish L Thadani, Vishal Dhanjani, Ketan Vora, Bipin Upadhay

Functional Jaw Orthopedic Correction of Class II Malocclusion: A Novel Approach

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:1] [Pages:99] [Pages No:96-99]



Class II malocclusions may present with skeletal features of mandibular retrognathism, midface protrusion, and dental features of distal step molar relation. An unusually large overjet and/ or variable combinations of these features are common in class II malocclusions. Europeans have tried to grow deficient and retropositioned mandibular with the help of various remarkable and fixed appliances called myofunctional therapy, viz., Frankel, Bionator, Twin Block, etc. Although timing of treatment, mode of their action, treatment benefits, and mechanism of craniofacial adaption have been researched extensively, the subject of functional appliances has always been a matter of discussion with conflicting views. The article provides an insight into early diagnosis and nonextraction fixed mechanotherapy approach for treatment of complex malocclusions.

Keywords: Class II malocclusions, Functional jaw orthopedic, Skeletal malocclusion twin block.

How to cite this article: Bagul V, Parhad S, Thadani ML, Dhanjani V, Vora K, Upadhay B. Functional Jaw Orthopedic Correction of Class II Malocclusion: A Novel Approach. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018;5(1):96-99.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


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